The Resource Editor (all project type)
Written by P. Eugene Brennick
Available through the Project->Add Resource menu.
When it comes to providing a method to easily get a project up and running quickly and effortlessly with most, if not all, of the real hard stuff when it comes to complicated code automatically done for you; there is no match for a Visual Resource Generator. The Resource Editor that I have added to Easy Code is a workhorse designed to do just that. You can almost sit back and watch your projects just leap off the screen as window after window is effortlessly generated.
If anyone had ever written a program called The Anatomy of a Program, you would be able to read in it that there are certain prerequisites that go into creating a program. You must have an idea, born of a need that will show you what elements will be needed in the project. Get out a pad of paper and whilst thinking out how you wish your program to function; write down all the windows and dialog boxes you will need. Also list what tools will be included in each. You should take the time to think out the flow of the program and note what resources will be involved. At this point, you will take the time to create all the windows and/or dialog boxes that will be used by the project. This may include using lots of resources from the Toolbox. If you cannot see the Toolbox, just click View, Toolbox from the Menu. Things like Buttons, Check Boxes, Radio Buttons, Text Boxes, Labels, Pictures, Scroll Bars, Frames, Lists, Combo Boxes, List Views and Tree Views are needed to be thought out in terms of how they can help bring your idea to fruition.
Don’t be afraid to over create at this point because, if some are not used in the final draft, they are easily removed. Remember this as a Programmer’s maxim, “Creativity comes from a conflict of ideas.” Once you have created all your resources, all you need to do is add the code that sews the whole project together. A nice feature of Easy Code is the ability to compile and test dialog boxes as they are created.
I encourage you to back up the Examples folder to a zip file and then load the various projects that are there for your use and/or enjoyment and tinker away. Make changes to various parts of the programs and then build the project and observe the results of the changes. If the project does not build, examine your changes to learn why. In my opinion, this is the best way to learn how to code in Assembly. Also, remember that all the projects are freeware for your use and for you to learn from.
To make things work efficiently, it was necessary for me to make some support file changes. I describe these changes and additions below.
1 - Project file format has changed
File project format has been changed to support the new Resource editor. Now, a new file is added (with the extension ecr) in order to save resources. Backwards compatibility has been maintained so you can safely load projects made with old versions of Easy code with no errors. When saving an old project, it will be saved in new format. Folder housekeeping is maintained by Easy Code which means that if a particular file has become superfluous, Easy Code will remove it. This feature does not include imported RES files, they are left untouched, you have the most control over those files, but I would recommend that you eventually reach the point where all resources are created in the IDE, specially in Visual Mode (see Importing resource files).
2 - Complete Resource editor (available for use by all projects)
Available from the Project-->Add Resource menu or from the Resources node (in project explorer), through the context menu. You can choose one of the following resources:
- Accelerator adds a new accelerator table. I would encourage you to use this feature. Functions such as Cut, Copy, Paste, Undo, Redo, etc. can often be more easily accomplished by utilizing the Control keys (especially if you grew up with the use of them. Also, remember that you should program to as wide an audience as possible. Just because you may not use Control keys, remember that there are others who will do so almost without thinking and a good programmer will satisfy their needs as well.
- Dialog adds a new dialog box (only available in classic projects as visual projects have their own DialogBox object). Dialog boxes are indispensable. They are your main means of obtaining information from the user at various stages of the program. Add all the Buttons, Check Boxes, Radio Buttons, Text Boxes, Labels, Pictures, Scroll Bars, Frames, Lists, Combo Boxes, List Views and Tree Views to your heart’s content. For myself, I consider this a fun part of designing an application. This is where you can move things around by the ‘click and drag’ method so as to get just the right look and feel to your application. A feature that I like is if, for instance, you are adding four buttons to the dialog box and you want them to be perfectly left aligned, it might be difficult to see where to move the left edge of the buttons so they are not one pixel off. All you have to do is using the toolbar of the dialog box, where there are several buttons to modify the edges, height or width of multiple controls at a time, or left click each button one at a time to get focus to it. While it has focus, look to the left at the properties box. Find the line that says Left and then change its value. Next, double click each button and make the same change. It’s just as easy as that! Look at other setting in the Properties box, there are lots of things to fiddle with! Finally, remember that Dialog objects may have a class name (ClassName property). If so, the class must have been registered before creating the dialog box. Otherwise, the creation will fail and it will never be shown.
- Image adds a new image: Icon, Cursor or Bitmap. You can add these resources to either a window or a dialog box. Icons can be used for various purposes. They can be displayed in the Title bar, in Menus and assigned to a Shortcut just to name a few. I also like to add an icon to my About boxes. Cursors are useful to give user information about a particular area that has focus such as a string that may resolve to a web link or an email address for example (see also The application icon).
- Menu adds a new menu. At this point, think of all the operations that are going to be performed by your application. You should make a menu entry for each one. Every dialog box that has been created should have a menu entry, also. Remember our discussion about Ctrl keys? This is where they get declared. Every menu entry can have two versions of ‘quick keys,’ they are ALT and CTRL.
ALT keys are declared by adding an ampersand (&) just before the left you wish to promote to this use. For example, if you want to be able to activate the file menu bu pressing ALT+F, you just lable that entry as &File. If you wanted it to be ALT+I, you would use this label, F&ile, etc. Remember, when working in submenus, if you have to different entries in the ‘same’ submenu being promoted using the same letter, neither will work. For example, you would not want these two labels in the same submenu, &Save File, &Save Settings. Instead, just promote a different letter in one of the labels. ALT key declarations (I call them promotions because, since the key has an added function, it has been promoted) are not case sensitive.
CTRL keys are also declared in the label section of the menu entry, but in the following manner, "Select &All\tCtrl+A". As you can see, you preface a CTRL key promotion with this key sequence, “\t”. It is VERY important to note two things:
- 1. ALT key promotions are limited to within a specific submenu. &File and F&ormat, &File are both valid. CTRL key promotions are global declarations within the entire menu system. For example, if you are using the following, "Select &All\tCtrl+A", CTRL+A should not be used anywhere else.
- 2. Remember that there are CTRL keys inherently promoted by the system. These declarations should be considered as reserved keys and should NOT be used anywhere else. Examples of these keys are CTRL followed by any of these letters, A, C, U, V, X, Y and Z, plus F1, TAB, ESC and DEL.
CTRL key declarations (I call them promotions because, since the key has an added function, it has been promoted) are not case sensitive. For example, the ‘c’ and ‘C’ keys are the same.
- Raw Data adds binary data, either, single values or a whole file. This area can be used to store blocks of data, typically in hexadecimal. Icons and bitmap graphics can be embedded into a resource file by using this ability
- String adds a new string. This is where you can declare descriptions for promoted keys, for example. Also, error and help messages would be stored here. An example, a description of Paste (CTRL+V) would be “ "IDM_PASTE" "&Paste" ”. Another example, help message this time, “ "IDS_UNDO" "To undo your last change, press CTRL+Z" ”.
- Version adds a version resource (just one). It can be deleted if you do not want the final .exe or .dll to have a version, but if you right click the generated EXE or DLL of your application and click the version tab, if it exists; it is possible to see certain specific information that is declared here. This is a nice way to reveal ownership, etc. to your user base.
Each resource must have a unique ID, usually upper case, and not being one of the reserved words. Reserved words are those belonging to Macro Assembler’s syntax, processor register names, Windows constants and variables or Easy Code reserved ID's (i.e. IDR_VERSION or RT_FILEDATA). The Easy Code reserved word list has been build into one of the Example projects, sort of killing two birds with one stone.
The Version resource always has the constant ID name of IDR_VERSION, which value is 1. Only one resource version is allowed, but you can delete it if you do not want your final EXE or DLL to have a version.
The Dialog resource is not available in visual projects, as they have their own and more complete DialogBox object.
For Accelerator, Image, Raw Data and String resources, you must specify an ID (i.e. IDS_STRING) and a value or data for that ID (a text string for String, an image file for Image, etc.).
When defining Raw Data, you can specify two different types of data:
- An existing file name (the file must be in the RES directory). This file will be included in the final .EXE or .DLL file as a resource.
- A value (or consecutive values, each entry separated by a comma)
- When specifying a file name, the corresponding file has to be in RES directory.
- When specifying values, they must have one of the following valid formats:
L"Here is a Unicode string\0" //
Unicode string (note: explicitly null-terminated)
"Here is an ANSI string\0" // An ANSI string (note: explicitly null-terminated)
1024 // An Integer value
0x029a // A Hex integer value
0o733 // An Octal integer value
"\07" // A Byte (8-bit)
// A single Integer (16-bit) value
1,2,3,4 // 4 Integer (16-bit) values
"1","2","3","4" // 4 Byte (8-bit) values (ASCII values: 49, 50, 51 and 52)
"\r" // A control character (8-bit) corresponding to ASCII 13 (<Carriage Return>)
Note that any numerical value (in decimal, hex or octal notation) is always a 16-bit integer (DW value in assembler).
IMPORTANT: You are responsible for entering values in any of the valid Raw Data formats explained above in order to avoid errors when compiling (for more information see the RCDATA statement help in GoRC or RC help files). Do not forget double quotes when needed, and a comma when more than one value is specified. On the other hand, when specifying a text string as Raw Data, you must take into account that it is an ANSI string (unless it is preceded by the 'L' macro) and it is NOT null-terminated, so you have to explicitly add the final zero, if needed. This is not necessary for String resources, as they are always Unicode, null-terminated strings.
When you need to load a Raw Data resource from any part of the code, you first must find it (API call: FindResource). The last parameter of FindResource is the type of resource to be found. This type must be RT_RCDATA for data values, or RT_FILEDATA if the data resource is a file (RT_FILEDATA is defined by Easy Code as 256 and it is not part of Windows O.S.).
- To save all resources, Easy Code will create a new file in the project, with an ECR extension (projects from Easy Code’s old versions will be converted with no errors and saved in this new format).
- Finally, when building the project, a complete .rc file (with the same name plus the .rc file) and its corresponding .h file (a header file) will be created in the project directory. Both files are rewritten each time a window or module is compiled.
3 - Easy Code resources are ignored when adding an external resources file (*.RES)
Only one resource file can be linked to the application. Since all resources can now be added directly by Easy Code, if you add an external compiled resource file (*.RES) to the project, Easy Code will suppose that you already have all needed resources in the external file that you added and that will be the linked one. In this case, Easy Code generated resources (if any) will be ignored. On the other hand, when no external resource file is added to the project, Easy Code will link its resources (if any) to the application.
4 - Easy Code generates an RC file and its corresponding header file (*.H)
an RC file with all Easy Code resources, it will be generated and
REMARKS: This feature is not available for static libraries (lib projects) as they cannot have resources.
IMPORTANT: If you write any text in the ClassName property of a dialog box, Easy Code will understand that it is the class name and so it will be written in the .RC resource-definition file. If it is a number, it will mean a 16-bit unsigned integer identifying the class. Otherwise, it will mean the name of a class. When having to show the dialog box, its class must be registered (or it must be one of the Windows pre-defined classes) so that the window can be created. If you are not going to register the class, just set the ClassName property to no text (default value) in order to avoid errors. For more information, see CLASS statement help.
Remeber that only one resource file can be linked to the application. So, if you add an external *.res file, resources made by Easy Code will be ignored.
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